Second cycle of recompression does not increase softening for 16.7 KN/m3. Difference between F2-F1 is the deviator stress into the soil layer. Displacement response curve of intensity 7 frequently of Imperial Valley (longitudinal input). The forces are due to the deformation of the foundation during quake. The shear stiffness decreased by about 56 % as the shear strain increased. The monitors are depicted in figure 14, the type of output in figure 15 by the Sequoia GEA System. From the early elastic-plastic numerical simulation and the frequently earthquake test, it is found that the longitudinal seismic capacity is weak. The intensity 8 rarely earthquake of artificial synthesized is conducted in the pseudodynamic test at longitudinal direction. Romero (1999) [7]. The frame sets two intermediate platforms at different elevations of the lower end of the generator, and the plate thickness is about 0.5 meters. The structure has strong nonlinearity. Reducing the Reynolds number of 1000 times: The coefficient 2,3 is the change of base from 2,76 to 10: Oedometric settlement are monitored and the expected value is in the order of: Where, 50 KPa indicatively is the vertical pressure applied to sand by foundation and -100 KPa is the maximum capillary tension due to partial saturation. It can be seen from Table 4 that the displacement of the plate, column, and beam column joints decreases successively from big to small. The seismic response of earthquake input in different directions is obviously different. This indicates the structural layer displacement concentrates in the middle platform, which the designer should be paid the attention to. The test results will then be presented and analyzed. As a lifeline facility, once it is destroyed in earthquake, the turbine-generator foundation (hereinafter referred to as the “T-G foundation”) will cause serious disasters. The behavior is due to the reduction of horizontal F1 rather that an increase of vertical F2 with to different rates, leading to the condition of 2nd order instability described by Euler. The slope of the restoring force displacement curve decreases gradually, and the structural stiffness shows certain degradation. Through the tests, under longitudinal loading, columns between beams and platforms were easily destroyed. ), W. M. Liu and M. Novak, “Dynamic behaviour of turbine-generator-foundation systems,”, T. J. Qu, K. Xiang, X. J. Yin, and X. Y. Shao, “Pseudo-dynamic test of the anti-seismic performance of turbine generator foundation,”, G. S. Luo, J. X. Fang, and J. Wang, “Aseismic performance of spring supported turbo-generator foundation,”, B. Q. Wang, H. Ma, X. Y. Zhou, and Z. The test results are shown in Table 2. The difference F1 – F2 = Q is the deviator stress in the column. W. (2016) Face Stability of shallow tunnels in partially saturated soils, (9)    SOILWORK.COM Website for Industrial PATENT, (10)  Soil-Structure Interaction for Gravity Caissons in Bridge Seismic Design (2011) Hubert Law, Ph.D., P.E.1, I. Po Lam1, P.E., G.E., and Patrick Wilson, Ph.D., P.E.1, 1Earth Mechanics, Inc., 17800 New Hope Street, Suite B, Fountain Valley, CA 92708; PH (714) 751-3826; email: [email protected] Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Reaction walls provide counterforce. The mass is simulated numerically in the computer, and the gravity is realized by the weight block. 193, 2911-2939.

The seismic response of displacement and story drift was investigated by a pseudodynamic test. In the frequently and fortification earthquake of intensity 7, the foundation has good working performance; the maximum displacement of the plate is 15.20 mm (longitudinal), in the range of elastic deformation. Hysteresis curve of intensity 7 frequently of synthesized (longitudinal input). The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. As shown in Figures 21–28, in frequently earthquake of intensity 7, the restoring force and displacement curves of the structure are basically linear and are surrounded by the hysteresis loop area, which is very small; in the loading process, the stiffness degradation is not obvious, and the structure is in the elastic state . Not only strong motion records are used but also earthquake accelerations are synthesized. Fan, J. Nie et al., “Finite element dynamic study on large-framed foundation of steam turbine generator,” in, D. Q. Mei, “Research on vibration characteristics of a 280 MW steam turbine-generator foundation by model testing,”, S. Abdullah and N. H. A. Hamid, “Modelling of turbine-generator and foundation as single degree of freedom using Ruaumoko programme,”, G. L. Bai, X. Liu, B. Q. Liu et al., “Experimental modal analysis on the model of framed foundational structure for large steam turbine-generator set,”. The equation of motion is: (see figure 12): Figure 12 Inertial force Monitored and reported at the nodes with Sequoia GEA. It is statistically linked to the Mass because is an Energy. In the stage of intensity 7 frequently earthquake, at the transverse input, the maximum displacement occurs at about 17.0 s, 8.5 s, and 35.0 s when synthesized, Imperial Valley, and Alaska earthquake input separately. What is different is that, the maximum of displacement occurs when the strong earthquake records of Imperial Valley are used as the longitudinal input. Figure 14 Node of the Frame with Monitor and Inertial Direction, Figure 15 Example of acquisition by GEA System. We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. Under action of earthquake in different directions, it is shown that the maximum displacement occurs in synthetic seismic waves in the stage of intensity 7 frequently earthquake at the transverse input, whereas it occurs in Imperial Valley waves at the longitudinal input. The maximum value for seismic acceleration of ground motion used in time-history analysis is 35 cm/s2 when the seismic action is intensity 7 frequently, 100 cm/s2 when intensity 7 fortification, and 400 cm/s2 when intensity 8 rarely. Cracks appear at the important position of the structure, such as joint between the beam B6 and M1, joint between column C9 and M1. Spring-supported T/G foundation could decrease velocity, acceleration, and inner force response of T/G deck and shaft. Three different bidirectional loading protocols were adopted to study the effects of loading history. Changes in thermal value of T, the temperature, is due to the amount of stocked nuclear fuel. Thermal capacity of sand grains is higher than atmosphere, after permeation the fluid mixed with water exchanges heat with solid grains and cooling induces increase in viscous - plastic response (see test by SOGEA) . (4)Through the tests, under longitudinal loading, columns between beams and platforms were easily destroyed. The flex of the right test in figure 1.1 indicates a condition in which the rate of the F2 – F1 increases with velocity, changing curvature from concave to convex. Displacement has devastating effects on people and communities.

The end of the second cycle is the Liquefaction in Earthquake Engineering - FEM modelling. The high-precision displacement sensors (LVDT) were laid out on the structure model to control the displacement of the pseudodynamic test and measurement plate.