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The price of consumables NaOH and H2SO4 are $635/t (Icis.com, c) and $80/t (Icis.com, d). Surrey: Reed Business Information Limited; c2015b [cited 2015 Feb 26]. Global glycerine production in various industrial sectors. The effluent from the Glycol Reactor goes to the Evaporator section to remove the water.

�C���BZY+q���Pb:��@��l\u�"A~Q�ϟ�De�\�n��=� 'h;g��54g�tNm�]3�N˿�k�"J>��}��A�9Dt9Na��';�q���`1t�_�i������&��(�bKB/��{�hI[W��i^S�_�����3�`q�u��vTyL���H�P����Q��m�]�'Ǵ��)s)\2�ĩħ�J|��6̙pƼ���´'� ��h��ZX3��fM��2��^4ŧf�Z|j����Ԅ܈gÞ��5\�H]�u��5\׈��3��8&��E?c����� �u�[O/�sm�!�H�g�̒��9��4?x�,�ԯ W�� As it stands, we recommend maximizing the NPV of the project with full scale optimization. Towler G, Sinnott R. Chemical Engineering Design: Principles, Practice and Economics of Plant and Process Design.

Available from: https://www.lme.com/en-gb/metals/minor-metals/cobalt/.

Product Safety Assessment [Internet]. Supply of propylene glycol struggles to keep up with an increasing annual global demand currently at 1.8m tons (Prweb.com). Tuck MWM, inventor; Davy Process Technology Limited, assignee.

Mostly used for MEG production.

The overabundance of glycerol caused by the growing biodiesel market has driven prices for glycerol to about $200/ton (Alibaba.com; Bozell and Petersen, 2010). This requires 823,680 tons of water, 609,840 tons of steam and 229,680 kWh a year. For each unit of biodiesel converted using this reaction, approximately 10% by weight will be recovered as by-product glycerol. Engelhard Industrial Bullion (EIB) Prices [Internet]. The debt ratio is taken to be 0.4 which allows this project to be financed by corporate bonds that are rated A and above, with a debt cost of capital of 5%.

Operators will needs to be thoroughly educated on acid burn precaution and treatment procedures due to the acidic requirements of the streams. Sigmaaldrich.com. Summer 2015 DESIGN OF AN ETHYLENE OXIDE PRODUCTION PROCESS (Courtesy of the Department of Chemical Engineering at West Virginia University, USA). The main product is purified to 99.8 wt% to meet USP/EP grade. Available from: http://www.oanda.com/currency/historical-rates/. This reaction alone accounted for approximately 65% of total glycerol production in 2011.

The total ISBL equipment cost is 4.8 $MM in 2010 Gulf Coast USD. Propylene glycol is conventionally produced using propylene oxide. Current plants using comparable technology, such as ADM and Oleon operate at 100,000- and 200,000-tons, respectively (Icis.com, a). ~;ăz$�8�C~��c`gPUR�{�!��B ��@��g�t�D�tP<00h$3��m� ��b��� Caustic Soda Latin America [Internet]. United States patent 08101807 B2.

Available from: http://www.icis.com/chemicals/caustic-soda/latin-america/?tab=tbc-tab2.

Bloomberg.com. For the one cooler and one heater, we also utilized water and steam, and more thorough design was developed in order to accurately price the two exchangers and to help make a pinch analysis viable. CHE655 Plant Design Project #4. The main safety concerns involve the acid streams and the reactor itself. w��5�u�HŔ�x}8tx�A;�L=F��'� ��� These numbers were calculated using 20% cost of capital, a 34% tax rate and a 10 year MACRS depreciation. One of our byproducts, ethylene glycol, can be sold at a variety of grades, including Polyester grade (99.9 wt%) and Industrial grade (99.1 wt%) (Meglobal.biz). Process Flow Diagram for the production of propylene glycol. b.

Hydrogenolysis of Glycerol and Products Produced Therefrom. Because, According to our process conditions, our reaction takes place at 15 atm pressure and 195, For isothermal PFR reactor, the performance equation is given as, As we are using 1200 % excess of water, so reaction will be Pseudo First Order reaction, Reaction Pressure                                 = 15 atm, k (reaction constant)                             = 0.23/min, Conversion                                           = 85%, Total Molar Flow Rate In=         = 497.4 Kmoles/hr, = Kmoles of Ethylene Oxide/Volume of the mixture, Kmoles of Ethylene Oxide                    = 497.4 Kmoles, Volume of the mixture               = Total weight of the mixture/Density of the mixture, Total weight of the mixture                    = 129324 Kg/hr, Density of Water                                  =868.5 Kg/m, Density of EO                           =405.9 Kg/m, Density of the mixture               =  (0.169*405.9) + (0.83*868.5), By using Equation for Volume of the mixture, so, Volume of the mixture                   = 163.817 m, Volume of PFR                        = 22.5 m, Volume of reactor = V              = π/4 (D, Nominal Pipe Size                               = 2 inch            Schedule No. The feed enters the reactor at a Hydrogen to glycerol feed ratio of 2.5:1 and at a pH of 12. Glycerol is recognized as safe for animals and humans and environmentally benign, with no significant environmental regulations. h�bbd```b``� 14.5% price premium on the selling price of ethylene glycol would achieve profitability of the process. Wmo.int. It was produced on a small scale during World War I, Plant Design of Production of Polyester Grade Mono Ethylene Glycol Sunday, 10 April 2011. Surrey: Reed Business Information Limited; c2015a [cited 2015 Feb 26]. For the cooling water, once the mass flow rate was calculated, this was sufficient to price.

We would recommend proceeding with the design in the case that an ethylene glycol premium was obtained. This process produces propylene glycol via hydrogenolysis of glycerol. Q�(` �×� The sizing and cost analysis for each of the individual machines and utilities as well as the overall economic analysis have also been examined. The price of products propylene glycol and ethylene glycol are $2557/t (Interview with Dow Chemical) and $1400/t (Meglobal.biz). Icis.com. MEG Sales Specifications [Internet]. Glycerin Specifications [Internet]. Montmorency: HB International SAS; 2012. Methods for Converting Glycerol to Propanol. Repayment of debt associated with fixed investment is accounted for in the weighted average cost of capital so 0% is taken as fixed cost of production. Meglobal.biz. Johnson Matthey Davy Technologies Limited 2014 [cited 2015 Feb 28]. Available from: http://worldweather.wmo.int/en/city.html?cityId=1081. The price of each column, utilities costs, product yields were optimized by testing several combinations of reflux ratios and tray numbers. Ethylene oxide is a chemical used to make ethylene glycol (the primary ingredient in antifreeze). The project currently holds great economic potential and with some more detailed engineering, could provide a very high return for our shareholders. Available from: http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-01-31/brazilian-power-price-surges-to-record-amid-dry-spell.html. The process uses 16,919 tons of crude glycerol a year to produce 9,601 tons of propylene glycol and 759 tons of ethylene glycol … Plant Design of Production of Polyester Grade Mono Ethylene Glycol Monday, 11 April 2011. Heat transfer between the two components improves the efficacy of the distillation tower, reducing the number of trays needed. The catalyst was reduced at 320 °C in the presence of only H2 prior to use in the reactor. However, there is definite room for expansion in the design; our low NPV values and high IRR values indicate the ability to leverage economies of scale and dramatically expand our profit margins. United States patent 08227646 B2. 2011 Apr 19.

H�\��n�0��y The process was simulated in Aspen HYSYS V7.3 to determine material balances and overall energy requirements. Technical grade glycerol is a refined product with a minimum 98% glycerol content and no salt, soaps, methanol, or other contaminants.

Srsbiodiesel.com. In addition most of the vessels are under fairly standard temperatures and pressures. Bricker ML, Leonard LE, inventors; UOP LLC, assignee. One of the main pathways of biodiesel production is through transesterification. Ի8C2�L-��wAji�K�*G�i�K\��Lf�@���!�c`PqA,� 2013 March [cited 2015 Feb 28]. Sodium Sulfate [Internet]. The key exception is the jacketed reactor, which is subject to extreme conditions.

of pipes required                           = 0.212/1.905 * 10, No.

2013 Mar 12.

Corporate Tax Rates Table [Internet].

Dow.com. Kpmg.com.

This page was last modified on 28 February 2015, at 16:11. The corporate tax rate in Brazil is 34% (Kpmg.com). EPA Proposes 2014 Renewable Fuel Standards, 2015 Biomass-Based Diesel Volume [Internet]. The average rate for the past 3 months has been 1 Real = $.427 (Bloomberg.com, a). 2nd ed. The plan will operate at 70% capacity in year 3 and 100% in the subsequent years. The NF cost index is 2250 in 2010 and will conservatively be 2050 in 2014 (Towler and Sinnott, 2013), which adjusts project cost to 5.33 $MM in 2014 Gulf Coast USD. V-102, a fractionation tower, removes water and C2 alcohols from the propylene glycol reactor effluent. [cited 2015 Feb 28]. The bottoms stream contains unreacted glycerol, ethylene glycol, sodium salts and other impurities. *��[��.�T����V�"�~Xv)��p�pBպ�Puj�U�W���� � ��*�AJ�!�/bd������s|�E���ҧ��^�Z�^�-顗�7W�]�Q�^�(~���` og�

Alibaba.com [Internet].

Figure 1. Green Chem. Available from: http://www.kpmg.com/global/en/services/tax/tax-tools-and-resources/pages/corporate-tax-rates-table.aspx. d�� The plant is scheduled to be constructed over two years, with 40% of capital expenditure being accounted for in year 1. L. No. The reaction of the Ethylene Oxide and Water to form Ethylene Glycol is a non-catalytic reaction. Maintenance is taken as 3% of ISBL Cost, and plant overhead is 65% of labor and maintenance costs.

The upper bound for reactor methanol concentration was set at 7 wt% to maintain catalyst performance according to specifications outlined by UOP (Bricker and Leonard, 2012). Also, several materials were evaluated, including SS304 and SS407, to find the lowest overall cost. Available from: http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/product/fluka/39988?lang=en®ion=US&fromUrlLabel=product%20details.?lang=en®ion=US. a. BRAZIL REAL-US DOLLAR Exchange Rate [Internet]. Several countries and organizations have worked to promote the use of biofuels. This entails the addition of parallel reaction trains and the inclusion of a heat exchange network to fully maximize our profit margins. A sensitivity analaysis was carried out for a variety of process parameters. The expected return on this project (10 year IRR) is 30.3%, indicating this project is highly profitable and can be scaled up for higher NPV.