Wind load is a very complex type of lateral load as how to determine all the forces caused by wind load may not be fully understood. The Washington Monument suffered some cracking at the very top and has since been closed indefinitely to the public until damages can be assessed. Contact detonations or hypervelocity impacts (> 1500 to > 10 000 m/s) are dominated by stress-wave propagation and release/spallation. For simple and regular structures, the seismic coefficient method is normally used. Newer concrete structures today are reinforced with steel, doing wonders for flexibility.

That can help with reinforcement but for bearing pressure, not sure. Terms of Use -

Therefore, the shearing effect on the material is appropriately defined as the force that tends to slide the material along a plane that is parallel to the direction of lateral force or lateral loading, resulting in the weakening of the material. (8.3). 8.85. Many of these buildings were built at the turn of the 20th century and are still being used today.

What is the Minimum reinforcement For Precast Pile  according to different codes (ACI,BS)?? August, 2006. There are different types of lateral loads, the most common ones being Wind and Earthquake loads. The seismic response of the soil–structure system (particularly in terms of soil–pile–pier and embankment–backfill–abutment–superstructure interaction and various sources of material and geometrical nonlinearity) is also discussed. The use of structural optimization procedures for full modal response spectra and time history analyses provides an opportunity to design structures for multiple earthquakes simultaneously. As discussed already, the important factors that influence earthquake-resistant design are the geographical location of the structure, the site soil and foundation conditions, the importance of the structure, the dynamic characteristics of the structure such as natural periods and properties of the structure such as strength, stiffness, ductility and energy dissipation capacity. Concrete buildings under blast loading_SU02003FU.pdf. where ∑ denotes summation along all members in the water, while {fD} are the results of integration of the drag force terms of Eqn (22.2) along the member. There is the need for a procedure to predict the earthquake response of offshore structures that includes both geometric and material nonlinearities, and such a procedure for the earthquake response analysis of three-dimensional frames is presented. SAFE perform iterative uplift analysis,any one having experience how to check the results of this analysis?? These techniques are useful in exploring potential structural costs associated with probable events and failures. Another part of the problem is the age of these structures. It is quite fortunate that they do not occur frequently. It is, after all, firmly attached to the ground in most cases, causing a lateral load and an equivalent shear force at the base (see Figure 1).

Once the design lateral loads are known on the two-dimensional frames, one could analyze the frame for the member forces. Structural optimization can be an extremely useful and beneficial tool for seismic resistant system designers.


Figure 3 is a chunk of a column we tested.

Table 2.20.

Both the strength level (SLE) and ductility level (DLE) relative to earthquakes should be considered in the design, and a period of 200 years should be used for SLE. Y    V    Nondeterministic procedures are available in order to explore seismic resistant design from a probabilistic point of view. F   

The added mass may be estimated as the mass of the displaced water for motion transverse to the longitudinal axis of the individual structural framing and appurtenances. The boundary and loading conditions for the wall panels have been adapted. 5.4.

Steel buildings have certainly come a long way, but a large part of the problem with older buildings is their dependence on stone, under-reinforced concrete, unreinforced masonry, and designs incapable of holding even the most moderate earthquake and wind loads.

The corrosion process begins by weakening the protective top layers, and the repeated horizontal forces, pressures (e.g., due to wind, earthquake, etc.) In this book, this technique is designated as the online hybrid test control method, and simply referred to as the online hybrid test. The following types of loads could be observed in building design. For the response spectrum method, as many modes should be considered as required for an adequate representation of the response. Because of innovation in the fields of electronics and the mechanics, the progress of those two groups of research has been remarkable. Objective functions can be related to cost, weight, damage, energy absorption or any other quantity that can be related to the actual design of the structure. I thought its same deffenition both. Offshore structures have also been installed in new areas in high-activity earthquake regions, such as Venezuela, Trinidad and the Caspian Sea. Using the proposed procedure, the earthquake response of a jacket platform is investigated. Notice the lines drawn with permanent marker.

Comments/Observations regarding modelling in ETABS, Minimum Reinfocement Criteria For Crack Control, First South Asia Conference on Earthquake Engineering (Karachi), Underground water tank base slab as a foundation, Difference between tension controlled and under-reinforced sections, ETABS Steel Connection Design SidePlate Systems, SAP2000 Problem with building deformation from seismic load. General response of shear-wall structures to lateral loads is discussed in the Masonry Designers’ Guide ( Samblanet, 2006) and is not repeated here. The ground acceleration vector {U¨g} is formed as an assembly of three-dimensional ground motions.

Steel is ductile, and the greater the ductility of a building, the better forces can be absorbed. Support shirt attachment to a pressure vessel. when i run analysis for second time, to revise auto selection  i got this error " NO Load Cases to run". Another reason is the energy dissipation that is known to take place at the foundation level due to the radiation of seismic waves and hysteretic damping, both contributing to the reduction of seismic loading when the presence of soil is considered (Gazetas, 2006; Makris et al., 1994). According to the Chinese specifications for seismic design of hydraulic structures (DL-5073-2000), the linear elastic gravity method and multiple arch–cantilever method, both with pseudo-static design earthquake loadings, are being used for gravity dams and arch dams, respectively. One reason for this oversimplification is based on the anticipated period elongation of the structure with respect to the fundamental period of vibration of a fully fixed system and the corresponding monotonic decrease of spectral accelerations foreseen, at least on the basis of the design spectrum. Twice the SLE peak accelerations should be used in the DLE analysis. In the calculation of member stresses, the stresses due to earthquake-induced loading should be combined with those due to gravity, hydrostatic pressure and buoyancy. ?what is the purpose and scope of this analysis??? The development of experimental hardware has also made it feasible to conduct large-scale static and dynamic tests with careful test control. 8.1. The National Cathedral and the Washington Monument.

So it seems there were a few damages from the Virginia earthquake earlier this week. EARTHQUAKE LOADS Earthquake loads are another lateral live load. An effort is therefore made to demonstrate a simple yet accurate means to account for SSI during the design process of bridges based on state-of-the-art scientific publications, seismic code provisions, related background commentary as well as expert engineering judgment. The design sectional capacity Rd can be expressed as. What kind of tool can measure a polarization curve in coulombs per second? Moreover, spatial variability of earthquake ground motion (SVGM) may be significantly different at support points of long bridges, due to (a) the traveling of the waves at a finite velocity (Der Kiureghian et al., 1997), (b) the loss of their coherency in terms of statistical dependence due to multiple reflections, refractions and superposition of the incident seismic waves (Zerva, 2009), (c) attenuation of motion due to geometrical spreading of the wave front and the loss of kinematic energy during propagation, (d) the effect of local site conditions, (e) pier-dependent kinematic interaction at the soil–foundation interface (Sextos et al., 2003a) and (e) non-uniform liquefaction along the bridge length (Elnashai et al., 2009). It is now by no means difficult to simulate the static and dynamic earthquake response of complex structural systems using numerical techniques, such as the finite element method.

They allow fastest design, and are an additional independent analysis tool to be employed together with finite element (FE) modelling and experiments, as appropriate. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. High to hypervelocity impact and contact detonations require the above qualities with a consistent link to the shock properties of the material.

Similar to SSI, the perception often prevails that the uncertainty in modeling the variation of earthquake ground motion in space is higher than the uncertainty induced by ignoring the problem itself. The analytical model should include the three-dimensional distribution of platform stiffness and mass. The dynamic modulus and strength of concrete may be increased by 30% compared with their static counterparts in safety checks. Answer D. MCQ No - 3. if the warehouse load created problem, then why it effected only Ground floor level, not the 10th floor! The dead loads are mainly from the self-weight of the membrane, as membrane is a superlight material, so it is quite small, around 1 kg/m2. (8.2). Table 8.25. After analysis, seeing the floor displacement for seismic load,  i am in big shock to see the pattern. Mohamed A. El-Reedy Ph.D., in Offshore Structures, 2012. The article Water Pressure Due to Earthquake discuss the method of calculating the variation of the pressure due to a seismic event.

However, when the dam (arch and gravity) is categorized into grade I or II (related to dam height, reservoir and power capacity, etc.) P    All nontubular members at connections in vertical frames are designed as compact sections in accordance with the AISC specifications or using twice the SLE seismic loads.