Ka = 1.8 x 10-5. Methanal is a gas (boiling point -21°C), and ethanal has a boiling point of +21°C. (6) AMINE : The polarity of the amine trend isn't entirely consistent. Ethers are essentially Note that while for 3 and 4 carbons the ketones do have higher boiling points, it is not clear this is true for 5 carbon compounds and certainly not true for 6-carbon ones. Common odours can be found in vinegar, which contains ethanoic acid, and rancid butter, which contains butanoic acid. On the right the carbon chain is 7 carbons long (hept), There is a Aldehyde group at the end and so should be named -al, There is a Trans double bond on the third carbon from the right. one molecule is attracted to the negative end of another molecule. This group is very polar because of the Oxygen bond with the Carbon bond which causes a polar end. The most commonly discussed ester is ethyl ethanoate. As I remember from my Organic chemistry basement, the difference between ketones and aldehydes is based in the electronic distribution between carbon and oxygen. Esters, like aldehydes and ketones, are polar molecules and so have dipole-dipole interactions as well as van der Waals dispersion forces. This is due to the presence of two electron donating alkyl groups around the $\ce{C=O}$ group which makes them more polar. Carboxylic acids tend to have strong odours, especially those that are volatile. are found on the most electronegative atoms, the others are partially As a liquid is heated, the temperature is increased. But due to the presence of In comparison with the other functional groups such as alcohols, aldehydes have a slightly smaller boiling point than alcohols because of the lack of the Hydrogen bonding needed for strong intermolecular forces. So if Alcohols hold on to their molecules more strongly it would take more energy (at a higher temperature) to escape the liquid then aldehydes. This is due to the presence of two electron donating alkyl groups around the $\ce{C=O}$ group which makes them more polar. Next the main chain substituents need to be numbered off. increases, the kinetic energy increases which causes increasing attracted by the opposite charge effect (the positive end of By the esterification process shown above, three ethanoate groups can be formed. Therefore it should be named heptane. Firstly, it is a 7 carbon chain with a hydroxyl group on the end meaning that is a heptan-1-ol. The efficacy of van derWaals forces depends on the ability of molecules to pack closely together. Maybe the explanations given in the comments already give you the explanation you seek. third in the polarity because of hydrogen bonding capabilities For ketones and aldehydes of similar molecular mass, ketones have higher boiling point due to the fact that its carbonyl group is more polarized than in aldehydes. They partially dissociates into H, Word form equation: ethanoic acid + copper(II) oxide  →  copper(II) ethanoate + water, Word form equation: ethanoic acid + calcium carbonate → calcium ethanoate + water + carbon dioxide, Word form equation: ethanoic acid + calcium metal. Normally, it is drawn with the -OH groups on the right-hand side. Still, as the document Rauru Ferro linked to notes, the b.p. Polarity Ranking of the Functional Groups: More of this will be explained under. (3) ALCOHOL: These compounds are Robert J. Ouellette, J. David Rawn, in Principles of Organic Chemistry, 2015. (1) AMIDE: Perhaps it is surprising weaker than the dipole on O-H. (7) ESTER: The ester functional group energy of a proton at a particular location near a molecule. i know for similar MW, the BP is ether