Non-zero SO2 values are an indicator of plume interception, due the negligible concentrations in the background atmosphere. The pitch is controlled by the autopilot in order to return to the correct altitude, hence is expected to vary when passing though the plume, but the only cause for the roll deviations is turbulence. Image taken by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Aqua satellite on December 21, 2010.

The image is actually a composite of satellite data collected over a number of days in April 2012 and October 2012, and is the result of 312 orbits and 2.5 TB of information. The Pilatus unmanned aircraft system for lower atmospheric research. doi: 10.1016/j.catena.2015.04.004, Syahbana, D. K., Kasbani, K., Suantika, G., Prambada, O., Andreas, A. S., Saing, U.

Turbulent plumes in nature. Taylor was acting Resident Geologist in Port Moresby in August 1972 when he decided to visit Manam, presumably to see whether there were any changes to the condition of the volcano. The plume was slightly inclined with the wind at this time, meaning the automatic flight path passed tangentially to the plume position. Based on the accelerations and attitude deviations observed, the vehicle is using a significant portion of its flight envelope to remain on course.

(2017). This image, taken on January 21, 2005, shows a collision between two of the largest floating objects in the world, the Drygalski Ice Tongue and iceberg "B15-A" in Antarctica (B15-A is on the right). Sens. Photogramm.

Environmental reviews and case studies: bringing unmanned aerial systems closer to the environment. A small volcanic cone (known locally by the name “Godagi”) is located on the northern coast of the island, and has a summit altitude of 200 m AMSL. During flight A, the vehicle remained in AUTO during the plume transects. The integral is taken over the time period (t1) to (t2) (annotated on Figure 8), corresponding to a subsection of the total flight from when the aircraft has finished the ascent to immediately before the descent commences.

The payload comprised two miniature high definition cameras and a multi-component gas analyser system (multi-GAS). Manam Volcano in Papua New Guinea, as seen from space on June 16, 2010. Located 13 kilometers (8 miles) off the coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, Manam forms an island 10 kilometers (6 miles) wide. The image has also been sharpened using the sensor’s panchromatic band.

These intermittent streams can dry up rapidly. Figure 8B shows the power consumed and a cumulative integral of the difference between the current power and assumed cruise power of PC = 420W. The descent rate is ~5 m s−1 until touchdown and the airframe is sturdy enough to width-stand impact on hard ground. We also account for the energy consumed by the motors, since any increase in altitude or speed may be due to increased thrust and not plume buoyancy. All flights had pre-planned waypoint missions with a maximum altitude of 2,100 m above the take-off location and a path directly over the summit.