Human agency merits more attention when testing the weathering hypothesis (Elder, 1998; Ferraro & Shippee, 2009). We begin by outlining six main areas of research that we identify as auspicious avenues of study for gerontology. Each topic contains a summary of the methods, description of the resources, and links to the individual Centers’ websites where they are available. The 2017 Minority Aging Statistical Profiles were published alongside the 2017 Profile of Older Americans, which focuses on the population aged 65 and older and looks at changing demographics across individual categories, including population, income and poverty, living arrangements, education, health, and caregiving. For instance, does it lead to chronic inflammation (as measured by C-reactive protein)? (, Padilla, Y. C.Hamilton, E. R., & Hummer, R. A. Racial health inequality was manifest early in U.S. history, reflecting immigration streams as well as public health in the United States and the countries of origin. Cognitive interviews thus identify the types of errors made by respondents and help us understand how they interpret and answer questions. This project was supported, in part by grant number 90NU0002-01-02. Exposure to toxins, whether naturally occurring or due to pollution, may lead to or exacerbate health problems, but social environments can be equally detrimental to health. Some are authored by RCMAR AnC investigators. Heuristic model for studying diverse aging and health inequality by race and ethnicity. The 2017 Minority Aging Statistical Profiles were published alongside the 2017 Profile of Older Americans, which focuses on the population aged 65 and older and looks at changing demographics across individual categories, including population, income and poverty, living arrangements, education, health, and caregiving.

The profiles primarily use data from the U.S. Census Bureau to provide an annual summary of the most recent statistics. Doing so will open up evidence-based consideration of how to mobilize resources that may be effective in reducing health inequality. We need more research on who experiences stressors due to racism and who is most affected by such stressors. Racial and ethnic segregation exists because of both forces, and Williams and Collins (2001) argued that racial segregation is a fundamental cause of disparities in health; residence in disadvantaged and segregated neighborhoods often limits opportunity and quality of life for Black Americans. When combined, however, the health consequences are predictably grave, underscoring the influence of institutionalized discrimination (Williams & Mohammed, 2009). Although gerontologists have long embraced the concept of heterogeneity in theories and models of aging, recent research reveals the importance of racial and ethnic diversity on life course processes leading to health inequality. A novel theory and first population-based test of Black-White differences in telomere length, Race-ethnicity, poverty, urban stressors, and telomere length in a Detroit community-based sample, Racial and ethnic disparities in hospital care resulting from air pollution in excess of federal standards, Health assimilation among Hispanic immigrants in the United States: The impact of ignoring arrival-cohort effects, Telomere loss: Mitotic clock or genetic time bomb, Racial inequality in active life among adult Americans, The significance of socioeconomic status in explaining the racial gap in chronic health conditions, When does a difference become a disparity? Though nativity status, U.S. tenure, and language spoken at home are often used as proxy measures for acculturation, recent research has argued that researchers need to take into account the social and cultural contexts in which immigration and assimilation occur (Abraído-Lanza et al., 2016; Allen et al., 2014). Cognitive Interview demonstration (CHIME): a 15-minute video demonstrating a cognitive interview. The study of the early origins of adult health implies consideration of intergenerational transmission of health. B. Within gerontology, research on minority health—comparing the health of historically underrepresented minority groups to the majority population—has revealed how structural disadvantages challenge individuals to age well. Thus, the logic of this line of investigation is to tap the experience of racism as reported by persons who feel that they have been treated unfairly. We present Figure 1 as a simplified model of the diversity of aging and health by race and ethnicity. Ideally, we need more information to integrate information on family lineage, immigration streams, and intergenerational status attainment. In addition to investigating population trends in racial and ethnic health inequality over the past few decades, attention has been given to how the aging process shapes inequality. Second, the evidence is inconsistent that weathering operates for other historically underrepresented minority groups. In order to advance research on the topic and reduce racial/ethnic health inequality in complex societies, we offer several recommendations and an integrated conceptual framework. Support for this research was provided by a grant from the National Institute on Aging to K. Ferraro (AG043544). Sample cognitive interview protocols (CHIME):  presents a hypothetical cognitive interview protocol to test Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS®) draft items. Indeed, telomere length has been associated with stressors such as perceived discrimination (Chae et al., 2014), and some studies report that telomeres are shorter in Black relative to White adults (Diez Roux et al., 2009). Several of the six items outlined above focus on research design issues such as outcomes studied (e.g., biomarkers) and integration of contextual variables in analyses (e.g., use of geocoded data). Unfortunately, many laypersons and scholars alike attributed these differences to innate biological factors (Krieger, 1987). Discrimination is one type of risk accumulation that merits detailed examination in studies of health because it is shaped by and acts back on environmental and social contexts. In addition, many measurement batteries ask for an attribution for the unequal treatment, but this may be difficult for respondents to answer because race and ethnicity overlap with other statuses. The pace of this aging is different across race and ethnicity groups, according to new 2018 Population Estimates by demographic characteristics for the nation, states and counties, released today by the U.S. Census Bureau.. From 2010 to 2018, the …

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CHIME (UCLA):, CADC (UCSF): Many of these are authored by RCMAR AnC investigators. In short, the myriad insults faced by social disadvantage result in premature aging—an accelerated deterioration in health. During the past 50 years, as evidence has accumulated regarding the myriad ways that social and environmental contexts influence health, the scope of preventable health problems has widened.

Department of Sociology, Purdue University, Center on Aging and the Life Course, Purdue University. Even here, however, research reveals that this relationship varies by country of origin of the Hispanic Americans (Nelson, 2013; Palloni & Arias, 2004). The line at the top of the figure denotes historical time, and the bottom line denotes the life course in biographical time from in utero experience to attained age, representing selective longevity. Conceptualized as a “heuristic model,” weathering prioritizes how socioeconomically disadvantaged persons “may be subjected to many sets of health risks, the consequences of which may accumulate with age” (p. 210). Beyond documenting trends in racial/ethnic health over historical and biographical time, researchers have sought to explain why racial and ethnic differences in health are so substantial, complex, and perhaps paradoxical. resources for conducting focus groups and cognitive interviews.

Some individuals and human collectivities, however, are noticeably challenged to age well because they face a host of threats to health. However, studies show that not only does the health advantage of Hispanic Americans over non-Hispanic White Americans decline with longer tenure in the United States (Hamilton, Palermo, & Green, 2015) but also that this advantage shrinks over generations—so much so that by the third generation, these health advantages effectively disappear (Padilla, Hamilton, & Hummer, 2009). Many scholars argue this relationship is, in large part, due to acculturation, or “the process by which individuals adapt to a new living environment and potentially adopt the norms, values, and practices of their new host society” (Abraído-Lanza, Echeverría, & Flórez, 2016). B.

(, Shippee, T. P.Schafer, M. H., & Ferraro, K. F. (, Siegel, R. L.Miller, K. D., & Jemal, A. Future research should account for the social environment of both the sending and receiving countries, paying special attention to country of origin and arrival-cohort. Data linkages can add great value to research on health by race and ethnicity.