These include steel, reinforced concrete and laminated timber such as glulam. Secondary framing: roof purlin and wall girt, etc. Portal frames are generally fabricated from steel, reinforced precast concrete, or laminated timber sometimes referred to as ' glulam '. Portal frames are generally low-rise structures, comprising columns and horizontal or pitched rafters, connected by moment-resisting connections. Portal frame structures are designed to span between supports and rely on fixed joints with moment resisting capacity where vertical supports connect to horizontal beams or trusses. Steel columns, roof beams, and bracing systems constitute the primary force skeleton of the portal steel frame.

Envelope structure: roof and wall panels; 4. Portal frame structures can be constructed using a variety of materials and methods. 2.

; 5. Roof purlin… Where a pitch is required, portal frames can have a mono pitch, or can have a double pitch with a rigid joint at the apex. Foundation. Auxiliary structures: stairs, platforms, handrails, etc . 3.

1. It is the primary framing. From

Primary framing: transverse rigid frames (including middle and end rigid framing), floor beams, crane beams, support systems, etc.

Resistance to lateral and vertical actions is provided by the rigidity of the connections and the bending stiffness of the members, which is increased by a suitable haunch or deepening of the rafter sections.