It is extremely important to completely degrease the blade. You can also take advantage of the hammering process to work on the width, length and thickness of the sword blade. It is best to work at a steady pace, watch your breath and toil at a rate that does not leave you panting. The first is built on a 15-inch-diameter pipe standing vertically 18 inches high. What remains is light and flaky and will not be a problem. The intent is to refine the grain of the steel, so you don’t want to get the metal too hot. I hardened this blade in oil and had pre-curved the blade during forging so that it will come out relatively straight. I can adjust the temperature if I find, after checking the blade with a file, that it is too hard. Your working time per heat is reduced so you have to work with light, rapid blows going repeatedly in and out of the fire. The process may seem complicated for some, but it will become relatively easy for you if you follow the right guide. You can use spray adhesive to stick the paper to the bar, but it is messy and I find it more convenient to cut the paper into strips and wrap them around a sanding block. The blade was forged from 1095 high-carbon steel, and for the heat treatment, I brought the entire blade up to 1,425 F, and soaked it until all the carbides had gone into solution. I mount the abrasive to sanding bars that are roughly 18 inches long and have handles on both ends. The straightness of the blade is corrected at this point until the blade is eyeball close.

I do not try to be too aggressive with the grind until the bevel flats have been established and I can feel them. When the blade is finish forged, it is checked for straight and true, corrections are made and then it is normailzed by heating above critical and allowing it to cool in still air. The blade that I have been making will be selectively hardened by applying a refractory clay coating to the back, or spine, of the edged steel. Before we dive into the full guide on the steps that will guide you on how to forge a sword, let us know the right materials and tools that are needed. The Japanese smiths often used a heated copper block for this purpose, but an acetylene torch will work. This method will hold the heat well, but the heat is not as evenly distributed and you have to mix them repeated to get a uniform temperature. When you first start to use the scraper, it takes a few strokes before it starts to get a bite on the steel. The type of finish you choose to apply to the blade will be determined by its use and function. This will make steel that is bearing a sufficient amount of carbon extremely hard. While we are fortunate to be able to draw on the experience and artifacts of the past, what is exciting about our times is that we have a chance to once again redefine the symbols of character. I hold the blade in the quench until it stops bubbling, gently moving it back and forth. With gloves on, I sight down the blade, and if it needs adjusting, I do it quickly. If the same blade were quenched in water, the point would climb and the blade would curve up. The above steps can serve as an ultimate guide to help you make your own sword.

This process is time consuming and is only finished when you decide the blade finish looks as good as you can make it. A dry run with the tongs in place will give you an idea of how much extra length is required to get the entire blade into the quench.

The final geometry of the blade should be established now. Placing in the quench tank allows the blade to cool evenly and quickly. Once the blade reaches critical temperature and has soaked long enough to put all the carbides into solution, then it is ready to quench. These bladesmiths or swordsmiths are metalworkers that are specialized and knowledgeable about how to make a sword. check out the. I usually go back to the grinders to rough in the flats and adjust the profile. If there are any grease spots on the blade, clean the spots until they are gone.

I routinely take blades through progressively more demanding series of tests all the way to destruction. Good normalizing practice prior to hardening will help but not eliminate warping. This particular blade still curved past straight and I had to regrind some of the re-curve out of it to make it straight. As much as forging swords is not very complicated, it is not so easy as well. I usually do this by placing the spine on the anvil and lightly tapping on the edge until the spine is completely flat on the anvil. The tempered martensite on the edge will etch black and the pearlite on the back will etch gray. But before you proceed with the heating, make sure you have cut the metal you want to use to the desired length. I grind my swords in sections in this manner, blending the areas by overlapping them.

Tapping on the edge will upset and deform the edge, and so it follows that it is necessary to correct the deformed portion of the edge, as well. Warren D. Stephens . Interior and exterior of the author’s tempering oven. Low-temperature salts melt at 350-400 F and become liquid capable of taking heats well in excess of normal blade-tempering temperatures. I find that if you are careful to check that the bevel is equal on both sides, then keeping the edge in the center pretty much takes care of itself. Once we have our heating source, we have to consider the quench tank. You can also build a small oven using heating elements and controls from conventional electric ovens. Once the sunobe is formed, then the edge bevels can be established. Another method is to heat sand or glass beads used in sand blasting.

1066vik Supporter. With a small piece of sandpaper under my thumb, I begin to lightly sand the whole blade, paying more attention the area above the hamon than below it. The paper will load quickly, but you can extend the life of it by scrubbing it occasionally with rough leather. STEP 5: Tempering: This step is important because, after the hardening process, the steel is very brittle and can shatter or crack if used to strike an object, at this point, therefore it needs to be given some flexibility. These grinds include convex, concave, and flat grinds. When the tang end of the blade is up to heat, the tip is cooling and vice versa. When I have finished, I have a rough bar with the preshape of my desired sword in the proportional thickness. Once the blade is straight and the profile is correct, you can begin to finish the blade. It prepares the billet for the final edge beveling and shapes the tang. Because of the scale on the blade, I use a worn belt. You can take the polish to another level by continuing to work on the finish. I remove the blade and let it cool to room temperature and then run another one-hour draw. In ancient cultures, the various parts of the sword would be made by craftsmen who would specialize in each particular aspect. It is still gaining temperature, but energy is required for the carbon to move from within the matrix of the iron molecule and go into solution. Another way is to check the steel with a magnet. At this point on the grinder, I am only getting out the scale and major low spots. The finish mimics that which was achieved using traditional finger stones. After all of the underlying scratches have been removed, I switch to 400-grit paper on the sanding bar and, going in the opposite direction, proceed to sand out all of the 180-grit scratches. If you can see bright areas on your file, the teeth are gone and it isn’t going to work as quickly as a fresh file would. Nov 26, 2015 #14 roaster pan works good - so does a … I start with a 40-grit belt, making sure to use fresh belts for all grinding. Also, it will help you handle the process of mastering the skills of sword making. Learn to use them effectively and they are pleasant tool with which to work. However, the form and shape the blade will take can be dependent on the type of grind you use. I start with 180-grit paper to remove the stone scratches and finish both side before moving to the next grit. Similarly, using the right tools for the process will help you to ease the process of making a sword. I have personally abandoned them because of these problems. When the blade is quenched, the clay will slow down the cooling enough to prevent the spine from fully hardening and leave only the edge fully hard. You should leave the metal in the forge until you have a yellow heat. Flat grinds, on the other hand, are quite simpler.

Warren D. Stephens . During this stage, shadows will be visible on the blade. The way this forge works is that instead of trying to equalized heat over a long length and narrow diameter, the heat equalizes itself over the larger area, giving a nice even heat. Once this finally occurs throughout the blade, the steel will brighten and be uniform over the entire length. You need to find the right amount of pressure when using a file. You should also ensure that all the slags on the surface of your metal are eradicated before proceeding with the grinding process.

Park's 50 - Quench Oil 1 or 5 Gallon container.