However, gunfire was heard in the early hours of the day in Cairo. Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali to step down, January 2011. An interim constitutional declaration was issued on March 30, 2011, by the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (Egypt’s interim military government). Judah was severely outnumbered. The demonstrators put up a sign that said: "Closed until the fall of the regime". Al Jazeera estimated the crowd size to be over one million in Tahrir Square. Oates, H. (2015, October 29). Chaos was rampant in Suez during the night, but as day broke the streets remained relatively quiet. [69] The resort town of Sharm-el Shaikh, however, remained calm. As protests continue, the spokesman for the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces appears on television to deliver a strongly worded statement warning protesters that all necessary measures will be taken to prevent protesters and rioters from disrupting public order or undermining the authority of the government. As in Cairo, many residents formed vigilante groups to protect their homes and businesses in the absence of police. Although Hellenism, which had spread in the 3rd century BCE after Alexander's conquests, was the dominant culture around Judea and the Greek way of life pervaded the area, the Jewish community remained steadfast to their own practices. "[159], Mubarak rejected international calls to step aside. One committee would carry out constitutional and legislative amendments to enable a shift of power. The banned Muslim Brotherhood participates.

Under Mubārak, Egypt’s cooperation with Israel in enforcing a blockade against Gaza was highly unpopular with the Egyptian public. Map of the Successor Kingdoms, c. 303 BCEby Javierfv1212 (Public Domain). [161], In Cairo, a standoff took place in front of the Egyptian Museum in the early morning hours with rocks and petrol bombs reportedly flying. As popular anger toward Israel builds in Egypt, protesters break into the Israeli embassy in Cairo. [128] Government forces and the police also fired into the crowd in an attempt to disperse the protesters. [270][271] Massive protests continued in Cairo, Alexandria, and other cities. The social structure of Jerusalem was run by the Jewish aristocracy such as the Priests and the High Priests. The army surrounded the presidential palace and state television and radio buildings[274] as protesters surrounded the Egyptian radio and television union building demanding fair media coverage. In a rare display of public criticism, the U.S. administration issues a public statement calling on the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces to end violence against prisoners and for power to be transferred to a civilian government as soon as possible. The purpose was to protest against abuses by the police in front of the Ministry of Interior. The MB also said, after protests turned violent, that it was time for the military to intervene.

[219], At least 70 people were wounded when hundreds of residents attacked the police station in Khargah to demand the ouster of a police official who had a reputation for heavy-handedness.

[98] Once policing became more problematic due to police disappearing from Cairo, the military took over, creating an overall more rigid system and making the military position more critical.

The earlier organizers called for a new protest in what was dubbed the "Day of Egypt's Love". [92] For the first time during protests, there were pro-Mubarak protests of at least 1,000 people. The security role was taken over by the military, and from then on the situation remained almost entirely peaceful. The best way to do that, he thought, was to enforce the Greek culture on all of the Jewish population, a feat that had so far been elusive. He declared that anyone who had been arrested during the demonstrations would be released unless they had committed a crime.

Al Arabiya reported that the military council said it would sack the cabinet and dissolve parliament, although they only did the latter.

[31][32] Hours before the protests, the Egyptian government shut down Internet services,[33][34][35] although some people communicated using a text-to-speech telephone service set up by Google and Twitter. In this special feature, Britannica provides background and context for the events unfolding in Egypt—shedding light on the political, economic, and social tensions that simmered for decades and erupted early in 2011. The Jewish people had their leader. In Alexandria, over a million protesters turned out, making it the biggest-ever protest there.

Last modified October 29, 2015. Seven police officers charged with killing protesters in Suez during the uprising are released from prison on bail. EST. The military set up numerous checkpoints throughout the city. [240], Some protesters moved from Tahrir Square to the area outside the parliament buildings, while demanding the assembly's immediate dissolution. Declared the 'Friday of Departure, "What Is the Future for President Mubarak? The already strained relations between the pious Jewish people that did not accept Hellenism and the Seleucid Empire were shattered when Antiochus Epiphanes adopted his father’s policy of universal Hellenization but took it to new heights. However, after the Maccabees conquered the whole of Judea and enforced the collapse of the Seleucid Kingdom in Palestine, the Jewish people imposed themselves as an autonomous group. It broke through the security cordon and moved to Tahrir Square. [80] Al Jazeera reported that 34 members of the Muslim Brotherhood were released from custody as their guards abandoned their posts. [221] The United Nations estimated deaths at more than 300. [89] Sharm el-Sheikh had seen no deaths and minimal trouble. On the second day of the presidential election, the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces issues a supplementary constitutional declaration that places severe restrictions on the powers of the incoming president and grants the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces sweeping legislative and executive powers and greater authority over the constitution-writing process. An Interior Ministry spokesman said that "the army remains neutral and is not taking sides because if we protect one side we will be perceived as biased....our role is to prevent clashes and chaos as we separate the opposing groups. He was considered a possible candidate for Prime Minister before the protests. Your armed forces, who are aware of the legitimacy of your demands and are keen to assume their responsibility in protecting the nation and the citizens, affirms that freedom of expression through peaceful means is guaranteed to everybody.