Although a lower 215 million, or 16% said they "believed in the existence" of ancestral spirits.

China has been the world's most populous nation for many centuries. The most densely populated areas included the Yangtze River Valley (of which the delta region was the most populous), Sichuan Basin, North China Plain, Pearl River Delta, and the industrial area around the city of Shenyang in the northeast. [58] This population of migrants would represent "almost 40 percent of the total urban population," a number which is almost three times the current level. In 1982 China conducted its first population census since 1964. The World Factbook estimated the 2012 active labor force was 798.5 million. Primarily for economic reasons, rural birth rates tended to decline less than urban rates. |image4=Buddhism in China (China Family Panel Studies 2012).png|caption4=Buddhism[37] [55] In general, rural-urban migrant workers are most excluded from local educational resources, citywide social welfare programs and many jobs because of their lack of hukou status. Chinese ancestral or lineage religion is the worship of kin's ancestor-gods in the system of, The map represents the geographic diffusion of the tradition of folk religious movements of salvation, Confucian churches and. The Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, and Tibet autonomous regions and Qinghai and Gansu comprise 55% of the country's land area but in 1985 contained only 5.7% of its population. According to the 2010 census, 91.51% of the population was Han Chinese, and 8.49% were minorities. Under the one-child program, a sophisticated system rewarded those who observed the policy and penalized those who did not. Beginning on 1 July 1982, each household sent a representative to a census station to be enumerated.

In rural areas the day-to-day work of family planning was done by cadres at the team and brigade levels who were responsible for women's affairs and by health workers. Health care has improved dramatically in China since 1949. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development.

Data from the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) 2010 for Chinese ancestorists, and from the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) 2009 for Christians. |image5=Christianity in China (China Family Panel Studies 2012).png|caption5=Christianity[37] The Xiangyang district of Jiamusi city (Heilongjiang) has a TFR of 0.41, which is the lowest TFR recorded anywhere in the world in recorded history.

In the mid-1970s the maximum recommended family size was two children in cities and three or four in the country.

For one year, starting in August 1956, vigorous support was given to the Ministry of Public Health's mass birth control efforts. [56], In 2011 a total of 252.78 million migrant workers (an increase of 4.4% compared to 2010) existed in China. Population Pyramids: China - 2015. Information was gathered in a number of important areas for which previous data were either extremely inaccurate or simply nonexistent, including fertility, marital status, urban population, minority ethnic groups, sex composition, age distribution, and employment and unemployment. Even without state intervention, there were compelling reasons for urban couples to limit the family to a single child.

Observers suggested that an accurate assessment of the one-child program would not be possible until all women who came of childbearing age in the early 1980s passed their fertile years. Life expectancy has more than doubled, and infant mortality has dropped significantly. Birth control offices were set up in the central government and some provincial-level governments in 1964. The alleged methods ranged from intense psychological pressure to the use of physical force, including some grisly accounts of forced abortions and infanticide. For the first time since the People's Republic of China was founded, demographers had reliable information on the size and composition of the Chinese work force. [53] In fact, research done by Kam Wing Chan of the University of Washington suggests that "In the 30 years since 1979, China's urban population has grown by about 440 million to 622 million in 2009. According to the 2010 census, males account for 51.27% of China's 1.34 billion people, while females made up 48.73% of the total.

The census data also were useful for estimating future manpower potential, consumer needs, and utility, energy, and health-service requirements.

As of 1987 the one-child program had achieved mixed results. In the countryside, there was great pressure to adhere to the one-child limit. One major fluctuation was reported in a computer reconstruction of China's population trends from 1953 to 1987 produced by the United States Bureau of the Census.

|caption3=Taoism[36] [63], The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated. Also, the policy in force during most of the 1960s and the early 1970s of sending large numbers of high school graduates to the countryside deprived cities of a significant proportion of persons of childbearing age and undoubtedly had some effect on birth rates (see Cultural Revolution (1966–76)).

The sex ratio (the number of males for each female in a population) at birth was 118.06 boys to every 100 girls (54.14%) in 2010, higher than the 116.86 (53.89%) of 2000, but 0.53 points lower than the ratio of 118.59 (54.25%) in 2005. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right.

"[60] China's government influences the pattern of urbanization through the Hukou permanent residence registration system, land-sale policies, infrastructure investment and the incentives offered to local government officials. Between 1970 and 1980, the crude birth rate dropped from 33.4 per 1,000 to 18.2 per 1,000. At the other end TFR was 3.96 in Geji County (Tibet), 4.07 in Jiali County (Tibet), and 5.47 in Baqing County (Tibet). Chinese census workers were sent to the United States and Japan to study modern census-taking techniques and automation. The second campaign was particularly successful in the cities, where the birth rate was cut in half during the 1963–66 period. Over 126,000 Westerners from Canada, the US and Europe are living in Mainland China. Urbanization increased in speed following the initiation of the reform and opening policy.

Couples with only one child were given a "one-child certificate" entitling them to such benefits as cash bonuses, longer maternity leave, better child care, and preferential housing assignments. Pretests and small scale trial runs were conducted and checked for accuracy between 1980 and 1981 in twenty-four provincial-level units.

Numerous reports surfaced of coercive measures used to achieve the desired results of the one-child policy. 1.44 in rural areas). ), note: data do not include Hong Kong and Macau, Population of China since 1960 in millions, Graphic representations of various analyses, Population of China by age and sex (demographic pyramid), People from other immigration jurisdictions. As of November 2019, China's population stood at 1.394 billion,[1][2] the largest of any country in the world. [citation needed] When China took its first post-1949 census in 1953, the population stood at 583 million; by the fifth census in 2000, the population had more than doubled, reaching 1.2 billion. Couples with more than one child were exhorted to be sterilized. The populations surveyed were those of the provinces of. She then reported to the brigade women's leader, who documented the information and took it to a monthly meeting of the commune birth-planning committee.

Census stations were opened in rural production brigades and urban neighborhoods. The 2010 Census counted 234,829 residents from Hong Kong, 21,201 residents from Macao, 170,283 residents from Taiwan, and 593,832 residents from other locations, totaling 1,020,145 residents. In 1987, the government announced that the fourth national census would take place in 1990 and that there would be one every ten years thereafter.

The map shows the distribution of ethnolinguistic groups according to the historical majority ethnic groups by region. Blog - Volg ons op Twitter - Koop een poster - Contact us by email, © December 2019 by, made available under a Creative Commons license CC BY 3.0 IGO:, Bevolkingspiramides van de wereld van 1950 tot 2100, Lijst van landen volgens hun bevolkingsgrootte, Adolescent fertility rate (births per 1,000 women ages 15-19), Age dependency ratio (% of working-age population), Antiretroviral therapy coverage for PMTCT (% of pregnant women living with HIV), Antiretroviral therapy coverage (% of people living with HIV), Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total), Children with fever receiving antimalarial drugs (% of children under age 5 with fever), Completeness of death registration with cause-of-death information (%), Diabetes prevalence (% of population ages 20 to 79), Diarrhea treatment (% of children under 5 receiving oral rehydration and continued feeding), GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$), Health expenditure per capita (current US$), Immunization, BCG (% of one-year-old children) - Turberculosis, Immunization, DPT (% of children ages 12-23 months) - Diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough), and Tetanus, Immunization, HepB3 (% of one-year-old children) - Hepatitis B, Immunization, Hib3 (% of children ages 12-23 months) - Meningitis, Pneumonia, and Epiglottitis, Immunization, measles (% of children ages 12-23 months), Immunization, Polio (% of one-year-old children), Incidence of HIV (% of uninfected population ages 15-49), Incidence of malaria (per 1,000 population at risk), Incidence of tuberculosis (per 100,000 people), Labor force, female (% of total labor force), Literacy rate, adult female (% of females ages 15 and above), Literacy rate, adult total (% of people ages 15 and above), Literacy rate, youth male (% of males ages 15-24), People practicing open defecation, urban (% of urban population), Population ages 65 and above (% of total), Prevalence of HIV, total (% of population ages 15-49), Prevalence of overweight, female (% of female adults), Prevalence of overweight, male (% of male adults), Prevalence of overweight (% of children under 5), Prevalence of syphilis (% of women attending antenatal care), Public spending on education, total (% of GDP), Risk of impoverishing expenditure for surgical care (% of people at risk), School enrollment, secondary, male (% net), Sex ratio at birth (male births per female births), Smoking prevalence, females (% of adults), Suicide mortality rate (per 100,000 population), Tuberculosis death rate (per 100,000 people), Unemployment, total (% of total labor force),