Animal and Cell Research (Lack of Evidence).

[11] Chlorogenic acid is present in the flesh of eggplants,[12] peaches,[13] prunes[14] and coffee beans. Jae B. It’s still in the animal and cell stage and further clinical studies have yet to determine if its extract may be useful in cancer therapies. Chlorogenic acid accounts for 5–10% of coffee beans, which is a much larger amount than caffeine (1–2%).

Still on identification of CGA in digestive fluids,21,29 considerably lower concentrations (about one third) of CGA and metabolites were present in saliva compared with gastrointestinal fluids. Isomers of chlorogenic acid are found in potatoes. All of our content is written by scientists and people with a strong science background. identified 15 p-coumaric acid-containing CGAs in green coffee beans, including three isomeric di-p-coumaroylquinic acids, three isomeric p-coumaroyl-caffeoylquinic acids, three isomeric caffeoyl-p-coumaroylquinic acids, three isomeric p-coumaroyl-feruloylquinic acids, and three isomeric dimethoxycinnamoyl-p-coumaroylquinic acids.27 The content of these CGAs does not exceed 0.02% or 0.1% (w/w dry matter) in total.27 Jaiswal et al. Chlorogenic acid is most commonly supplemented in the form of green coffee extract. The plural form refers to a related family of molecules called polyphenol esters and is not exclusively referring to the effects of the individual esterified molecule, chlorogenic acid. Most unsatisfied users complained that they didn’t notice any effects after taking the extract. Symptoms were primarily asthma attacks. Allergy to green coffee bean extract, the natural source of chlorogenic acid, has been reported. Different manufacturers produce green coffee bean supplements that may have more or less chlorogenic acid. CGA analogs that showed appreciable anti-HIV activities have been synthesized (Ma et al., 2010). reported 69 CGAs, including 3,4,5-tricaffeoylquinic acid (3,4,5-triCQA), in green robusta coffee beans using tandem LC–MS.28 3,4,5-TriCQA has higher physiological activities such as anti-HIV and antioxidant activities than CQAs and diCQAs.18,30, The content of CGAs in green coffee beans varys with genes, species, climate, nutrient state of soil, processing process such as decaffeination, and degree of ripeness.31–37 Coffea arabica (arabica coffee) and Coffea canephora (robusta coffee) account for approximately 75% and 24%, respectively, of global coffee production. 1. Fourteen hybrids from a controlled cross between the seven F1 hybrids and, Seven hybrids from a controlled cross between, Potential Effects of Chlorogenic Acids on Platelet Activation, Animal studies suggest that CHAs are metabolized heavily by gut microbes, and their metabolites are detected mainly in plasma. However, dark roast (low in chlorogenic acid) coffee was more effective than light roast coffee at reducing body weight in a clinical trial on 30 healthy people [44]. Importantly, many studies were conducted in mice. Chlorogenic acid may enhance the effects of metformin, a medication used to treat high blood sugar levels. The specific contribution of chlorogenic acid to the effects observed is thus difficult to speculate. Although the content of CQAs in C. canephora was only approximately 1.2 times higher than that in C. arabica, those of FQAs and diCQAs in C. canephora were approximately 3 times and 2 times higher than those in C. arabica, respectively (Table 21.1).10,31–35 When consumed as coffee, arabica coffee usually exceeds robusta coffee in organoleptic properties. Three clinical trials (with mixed results) and some animal and cell-based research cannot be considered sufficient evidence that chlorogenic acid improves mood. The topical application of chlorogenic acid prevented skin tumor growth in mice [62]. If you want to use it as a supportive measure, talk to your doctor to avoid any unexpected interactions. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is the ester of caffeic acid and (−)-quinic acid, functioning as an intermediate in lignin biosynthesis. Further studies using chlorogenic acid alone are needed to conclusively establish its effects. It is argued that the high resistance of immature peach fruits to the brown rot fungus, Monilinia laxa, is due to their high contents of CGA (Villarino et al., 2011) (Fig. Elena Gagliardini, ... Norberto Perico, in Kidney Transplantation, Bioengineering and Regeneration, 2017, Chlorogenic acid (CA) is a phenolic compound widely found in fruits and vegetables (apples, pears, carrots, tomatoes, and sweet potatoes) and in coffee and tea.71 Recent evidence demonstrated the scavenging, antioxidant, and antiapoptotic activity of CA.72 In a murine model of cisplatin (CP)-induced AKI,72 the CA intraperitoneally injected 48 hours after the CP injection recovered renal function and reduced renal histologic abnormalities in terms of tubular necrosis, cast accumulation, and tubular dilatation. In a clinical trial on 38 healthy people, drinking a beverage with added chlorogenic acids daily for 16 weeks improved performance in some cognitive functions (motor and psychomotor speed, executive function, and shifting attention) [49]. [6], Chlorogenic acid can be found in the bamboo Phyllostachys edulis,[7] as well as in many other plants,[8] such as the shoots of common heather (Calluna vulgaris).

While it is of general knowledge that bile is an important excretion route for phenolic compounds and that this promotes enterohepatic recirculation,8,9,21,22b,29 no significant difference in CGA profile was observed when the 87 gastrointestinal fluid samples with pH varying from 2.0 to 7.8 were compared.29 The lack of difference between concentrations observed in gastric and intestinal fluids suggests that not only bile ( and possibly pancreatic fluid), but also gastric fluid plays a role in the recirculation of coffee CGA. In another trial on 16 obese individuals, green coffee bean extract taken for 22 weeks reduced weight, BMI, and body fat percentage [7]. (–) Marks indicate unknown/insignificant. Jonathan Ritter, PharmD, PhD (Pharmacology), Grape Seed Extract (GSE) Side Effects, Dosage & Reviews, DMT (N,N-Dimethyltryptamine): Risks & Emerging Research, Inhibiting 11-βHSD1, an enzyme involved in making hormones that raises blood pressure [, Activating the GABAa receptor by binding to the benzodiazepine site, resulting in reduced levels of, Activating Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor alpha (, Lowering body fat content by reducing levels of, Preventing the absorption and production (by inhibiting fatty acid synthase) of fats, while increasing their breakdown (by stimulating beta-oxidation) [, Inhibiting HMG-CoA, the enzyme responsible for the production of cholesterol and the main target of statin drugs [, Improving the survival of dopamine-producing brain cells through the inhibition of microglial activation [, Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, Common sources may cause allergies and the side effects of caffeine, May interact with medication for blood pressure and diabetes.