He granted Robert II of Flanders the "remission of sins" (the same spiritual privilege granted to crusaders) for his fight against the Emperor's supporters. In an effort to unify the Empire under their leadership, the Ottonians increasingly associated themselves with the Church, claiming "divine right" to rule the Empire and presenting themselves as the protector of Christendom. The Polish duke was able to keep the contested marches of Lusatia and Meissen on purely nominal terms of vassalage, with Boleslaw I recognizing Henry II as his feudal lord. This ensured the bishops remained loyal to the reigning Emperor, despite the fact that canon law demanded such officials remain loyal to the transnational Church. Henry II (6 May 973 – 13 July 1024), also known as Saint Henry, Obl. Boles?aw I traveled to Merseburg on July 25, 1002 and paid homage to the new German king. Prior to open rebellion in 1004, Boleslaus III, Duke of Bohemia, was ousted in a revolt in 1002. [279][280] Henry decided to launch a new invasion of Matilda's domains. [100] Early in 1067, Agnes of Poitou hurried back from Rome to Germany to persuade her son to intervene on the Pope's behalf. Armed conflicts between Henry II and Herman II broke out but proved to be inconclusive. It was of no significant consequence, beyond some pillaging in Silesia. In exchange for this surrender, Henry II allowed Herman II to remain Duke of Swabia until his death the following year, after which, although recognizing the minor Hermann III as his father's titular successor, Henry II effectively assumed all power over the Duchy himself. The chronicle is nevertheless an excellent authority for the history of Saxony during the reigns of the emperors Otto III and Henry II. His brother-in-law, Count Wiprecht of Groitzsch, accompanied Henry as far as Mainz in late October. Prices start at £6 for unframed prints, £25 for framed prints. [168][171] The deposition of a monarch by a pope was unprecedented, but the Pope was convinced Henry's extraordinary arrogance could not be punished otherwise. Henry III also outraged the Saxon duke, Bernard II, because he supported the duke's main rival, Archbishop Adalbert of Hamburg, in the seizure of some Saxon counties. It was this pope who surrounded himself with northern and Tuscan reformers and started freeing the papacy from secular control and thus began to establish the popes as leaders of the entire Western Church. Under Otto I and Otto II, the Lombard leader Pandulf Ironhead expanded Western imperial control over central and souther Italy. [72][73] Archbishop Anno, Egbert of Brunswick, Otto of Nordheim and other discontented aristocrats decided to deprive her of the regency. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. The Byzantines still claimed sovereignty over the Lombard principalities, and the lack of single leader to prevent their advances into Lombard territory allowed the Byzantines to make inroads further north. The German counter-offensive began three years later in 1010. [282] He summarised their liberties in a diploma, protecting them against physical assaults and prohibiting their forced baptism. [315] Several witnesses stated that Archbishop Ruthard of Mainz and his kinsmen had stolen large portions of it. He lost most of his major battles; his sole victory at Homburg was primarily attributed to Rudolf of Rheinfelden by their contemporaries. Henry obtained Gotofredo's consecration, however, which brought him into a prolonged conflict with the Holy See. He was made Duke of Swabia in 1038, and on the death of his father the following year he succeeded as emperor. Their lengthy visits irritated the Saxon aristocrats who were exposed to direct royal control for more time than their peers in other parts of the empire. Henry II held a synod in Frankfurt on November 1, 1007, to build consensus among the bishops of the Empire on the establishment of the Diocese of Bamberg. [58] He emphasised that Henry's "right to participate in the papal elections ... is subject each time to reconfirmation by the pope". [297] Henry's authority remained limited to north-eastern Italy, and Matilda and Welf I's troops prevented his return to Germany. [251] His supporters and opponents held a joint conference on the river Werra on 20 January 1085 but could not reach a compromise. Henry II held a synod in Frankfurt on November 1, 1007, to build consensus among the bishops of the Empire on the establishment of the Diocese of Bamberg. The son of Henry II, Duke of Bavaria, and his wife Gisela of Burgundy, Emperor Henry II was a great-grandson of German king Henry the Fowler and a member of the Bavarian branch of the Ottonian dynasty. Unlike his predecessor Otto III, who had imposed plans on sovereign administration and active political involvement in Italy, Henry spent most of his reign concerned with the renovation of the imperial territories north of the Alps, a policy summed up on his seal as Renovatio regni Francorum, which replaced Otto's Renovatio imperii Romanorum. Rival candidates for the throne, including Count Ezzo of Lotharingia, Margrave Eckard I of Meissen, and Duke Herman II of Swabia, strongly contested Henry's right to succeed Otto III. Henry's action marked the first time a German king was not crowned in Aachen Cathedral since Emperor Otto I began the tradition in 936 and the first time a German king assumed the throne without election by the German nobility. In 1668, it was moved to 15 July for celebration as a Semidouble. [118] Agnes who had moved to Rome in 1065 returned to Germany and mediated a reconciliation in July 1072. This caused a sharp raise in conflict with the secular nobility, which forced Henry II to reinforce the position the clergy enjoyed in the governance of the Empire. To seal the peace, Boles?aw I, then a widower, reinforced his dynastic bonds with the German nobility by marrying Oda of Meissen, daughter of the Saxon Margrave Eckard I of Meissen. As a result, Henry II systematically reduced the internal power structures of the Bavarian and Swabia dukes. [93] Adalbert's attempts to take possession of Lorsch Abbey by force caused his fall, because the scandal enabled Archbishops Siegfried of Mainz and Anno of Cologne to stage a plot. He died without an heir in 1024, and was the last ruler of the Ottonian line. Together with the concept of Papal primacy, dispute over this doctrine was one the primary causes of the Great Schism of the Church in 1054.[29][30]. Originally appointed by Otto I as Prince of Benevento and Capua in 961, Pandulf waged war against the Byzantines as a loyal lieutenant of Otto II. It proved temporary because Henry did not dismiss his advisors. Bolesław I sent Mieszko II to besiege Meissen in 1017, then under the command of Mieszko II's brother-in-law Margrave Herman I. Henry II desired the new Diocese to aid in the final conquest of the pagan Slavs in the area around Bamberg. Eugenius III; his spouse, Cunigunde was canonized on 29 March 1200 by Pope Innocent III. [254][256] Three or four archbishops and fifteen bishops obeyed his summons. [271] Egbert's about-face and Burchard's unexpected death on 7 April 1088 accelerated the disintegration of the Saxon rebels' camp. Henry continued to appoint high-ranking clerics, for which the Pope again excommunicated him on 7 March 1080. As a consequence of his revolt, the Emperor stripped the Duchy of Bavaria of its southeastern territories bordering Italy and formed the Duchy of Carinthia. [132] To save the life of the commander of Lüneburg, Henry released Magnus of Saxony, whom the rebels acknowledged as their lawful duke without seeking royal confirmation. With this defeat, Henry II was ready to end the war and begin serious peace negotiations with Bolesław I. On the march across the Alps, Henry was accompanied by his wife, Queen Cunigunde and a number of clerics. [98][99] Late in 1066, Prince Richard I of Capua rose up against Pope Alexander II and invaded Roman Campagna. 1940); Geoffrey Barraclough, Origins of Modern Germany (1946; 2d rev. At the same time, Henry II entertained Yaroslav, the pretender to the throne of the Kievan Rus'. [210] At the February 1079 synod of Lent, Henry's opponents, Bishops Altmann of Passau and Herman of Metz, convinced the Pope to send new legates to Germany, but the Pope forbade his legates to pass judgement against the prelates who had been appointed by Henry. Henry II's familial ties to the Ottonian dynasty eventually caused the kingdom's nobles to accept him as king. Of the major candidates seeking to succeed to the German throne, Bolesław I supported Margrave Eckard I of Meissen over Henry. Compared to the other members of the Ottonian dynasty, Henry II spent relatively little time in Italy, only traveling south of the Alps three times during his twenty-two year reign. Henry II's lack of sensitivity to the secular nobility also resulted in the series of wars against Poland. Fleeing across the Alps to Germany, Benedict VIII appealed to Henry II for protection. [365], Henry was not a successful military commander, primarily because he did not avoid pitched battles, in contrast with most 11th-century military leaders. [43] He took the name Nicholas II. [357][359], Bishop Othbert buried Henry in Liège Cathedral, but the excommunicated Emperor's body could not rest in a consecrated place. They were primarily military commanders, but they were also responsible for the administration of justice. [221], Henry's second excommunication was less harmful to his position than the previous ban. Henry II, however, only saw him as a subject. Together with Papal primacy, differences over this doctrine were among the primary causes of the Great Schism of the Church in 1054. Godfrey the Bearded, Duke of Upper Lotharingia, married a wealthy widow, Margravine Beatrice of Tuscany, without the Emperor's consent. Henry refused. Bruno killed Otto but was mortally wounded in the skirmish. [201], The papal legate, Cardinal Bernard, excommunicated Henry on 12 November 1077. [15] The monarchs occasionally kept the office of duke for themselves or for their closest relatives, but sooner or later they had no choice but to fill vacant duchies, because they depended on the most powerful aristocrats' support. Instead, Henry II sent him off to Germany in chains and appointed Pandulf V to replace him as prince of Capua. [224] Henry returned to Germany and assembled his troops for a new invasion of Saxony. The elder Henry came into conflict with his cousin Holy Roman Emperor Otto II, in 974.