the Great Schism of 1054.
1154–98, Holy Roman empress, wife of Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI; daughter of King Roger II of Sicily.
Having wed Constance, posthumous daughter of Roger
The Sicilian vice-chancellor Matthew of Ajello pursued the succession of Count Tancred of Lecce and gained the support of the Roman Curia. Pope Celestine III
Roger, known to us as Frederick II. Some, however, like the Siculo-Greek Eugene of Palermo, transitioned into the new Hohenstaufen government with ease.
By the time Henry arrived in Palermo,
Henry pledged to go on crusade in 1195 and began preparations. Henry not only gained another vassal and ally, he could also assume the role of a mediator between England and France. of Rome, the temporal authority of the latter greatly strengthened following
but following payment of a hefty ransom Richard was released in February
In 1186 he was married to Constance of Sicily, the posthumous daughter of the Norman king Roger II of Sicily. At the same time, Henry settled the longstanding conflict with the Welf dynasty when he secured the marriage of Agnes of Hohenstaufen, daughter of his cousin Count Palatine Conrad, to Henry the Lion's son Henry of Brunswick, followed by a peace agreement in March 1194. prisoner, thus removing one more thorn from his side. was doomed to failure as the result of machinations back in Germany by princes
Further difficulties arose when the exiled Welf duke Henry the Lion returned from England and began to subdue large estates in his former Duchy of Saxony. In 1197, although "the well-prepared crusade of Emperor Henry VI aimed at winning the Holy Land, it also aimed at attaining the ancient goal of Norm[an] policy in the E[ast]: the conquest of the Byz[antine] Empire."
La Serenissima had suspiciously eyed Henry's claims to Adriatic ports threatening her dominating position and commercial interests in the region. As Albert had tried to gain control over the adjacent Pleissnerland, an Imperial Hohenstaufen territory, Henry took the occasion to deny the inheritance claims of the margrave's younger brother Theodoric and seized the Meissen territory for himself. He was the second son of Emperor Frederick Barbarossa and his consort Beatrix of Burgundy. He concentrated on the Franconian core locations of his kingdom, while the Bavarian and Saxon lands were less subject to the central authority. century, western Europe became the battleground for a series of particularly
The majority of the electors of Liège accepted the imperial decision because of the emperor's threat, and Albert de Rethel also relinquished and indignantly refused a financial settlement offered by the emperor. Our latest podcast episode features popular TED speaker Mara Mintzer. In the winter of 1195–96, Henry induced about 50 princes to agree to make the succession to the crown of the Holy Roman Empire hereditary, and at the Diet of Würzburg (April 1196) a majority voted for it. was the Kingdom of Sicily, which then encompassed all of Italy south of
Soon after, the tyrannical power of the foreign King in Italy spurred a revolt, especially around Catania and southern Sicily, which his German soldiers led by Markward of Annweiler and Henry of Kalden suppressed mercilessly. Henry tried to secure his rule in the Low Countries by elevating Count Baldwin V of Hainaut to a margrave of Namur, and at the same time he tried to reach a settlement with rivalling Duke Henry of Brabant.