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The different discourses of the museum, the way narratives are constructed in museum spaces, and how museum spaces can be considered syntactical have been explored by scholars such as Mieke Bal, Bruce W. Ferguson, and Tony Bennett. Transformative learning, being based on critical reflection and assumptions (frames of mind), seems more suited to the discursive model’s narrative impact. Fig 3.

Laboratoire d'innovation culturelle ouverte. On the other hand, if the approach of the museum exhibition is discursive, the experience of the museum enters the visitor’s narrative in parallel to the visitor’s own, as a story that can be critically assessed, as a discourse that can be analyzed. To see this page as it is meant to appear, please enable your Javascript!

Founded by philanthropist, filmmaker, and storyteller George Lucas, and his wife, Mellody Hobson, Co-CEO and President of Ariel Investments, the Lucas Museum is dedicated to inspiring current and future generations through the universal art of visual storytelling. 1 (1991): 1–21. They are also ‘central to interpretive space’[5] and through our understanding of how they are received by the visitor, we may be able to gauge their value within the wider environment. The immersive exhibition design, being anchored in the body of the visitor and integrated in the visitor’s narrative, allows for a more hands-on experience. For issue 6 of Stedelijk Studies Thomas Bellinck produced an artistic contribution.

Would museums be more effective educators if they took a stance and presented audiences with personal narratives rather than neutral labels? During our transmedia storytelling workshops, many participants referenced collaborative programs including storytelling, in which museums would invite locals to share their own experience of an event, their own perceptions of an artwork, and so on. So while instinctively the discursive model would seem to be the best fit for transformative learning to take place, when looking at the narrative impacts of the models on the visitors it becomes clear that immersive exhibitions are as beneficial to the transformative learning process. The debate remains open. [51] Indeed, this theory conforms to ideals of a museum promoting lifelong, free-choice, and multiform learning. Stories are an integral part of our experience as human beings. Sharing thoughts, experiences and ideas with the hashtag #museumsarenotneutral, they are exploring museum’s “sensitivity to political decisions, censorship and the financial economy,” as Anabel Roque Rodriguez argued in an article published on Art Museum Teaching. In her own Ted talk, writer Elif Shafak shares a similar experience based on her years at an international school in Madrid. In “Act 2: a new museum order,” the intent of the museum is one of universal knowledge and organization: “to arrange objects in developmental, historicized sequences, culminating in the present.”[19] Roppola argues that such exhibition designs carry specific ideologies and played a role in nation-making exercises. See instructions, Issue # 10 – Imagining the Future of Digital Archives and Collections, Issue #4 – Between the Discursive and the Immersive, For Whom Do We Write Exhibitions? Visitors often enter museums ‘with their imaginations ready to be deployed, only to find that [they] are not required’[11]. Art exhibitions are, as Ferguson emphasizes, “narratives which use art objects as elements in institutionalized stories that are promoted to an audience.”[16] Tiina Roppola further stresses that “story, or narrative, is the vehicle of choice for channeling the content of the museum, with its absence disconcerting to visitors.”[17] If we look at the different “acts” of the history of exhibition design described by Roppola, we can see that narratives, while used in a range of ways, are a constant presence in museum mediation strategies. Humans have long used pictures to communicate their greatest tales. Paul Ricœur, in “Life in Quest of Narrative,” argues that a narrative is the synthesis of heterogeneous elements and the making of a single story out of multiple distinct, and sometimes conflicting components. [2-18] p86, pXXII, p103, p215, p46, p227, p170, p92, p10, p224, p6, p2, p206, p295, p128, p128, Ibid. We can even go so far as stating that an immersive art exhibition creates a more than a “performance” narrative but a fiction, that Bal defines as “an account of made-up events, asking for the reader’s [or in this case visitor’s] ‘willing suspension of belief,’” while the discursive experience presents a narrative, “an account […], made up or not, presented from a particular perspective and suggesting that the reader [or visitor] endorse [or not] that perspective.”[46] In discursive exhibitions, the narratives the museum presents are experienced concurrently with the visitor’s own narrative, as a story that can be critically assessed, as a discourse that can be analyzed. She recently published a book, Art in Literature, Literature in Art in 19th Century France (2012), and publishes regularly on art, literature and museumstudies topics. This focus on visitor experience shifts the placement of the narrative from signage and space into the visitor’s body. Distribute your content with innovative narrative communication techniques. This narrative distance will also allow for a generalization of the experience, leading to the abstract conceptualization phase. The discursive display creates a space for reflection but diminishes the affective engagement of the visitor, as the narratives are not part of his/her autobiographical narrative. Sorry, you have Javascript Disabled!

Acquisition of knowledge and skills for implementing one’s plans, Phase 9.

As Roppola states: Whether consciously or unconsciously, exhibitions materially express a discursive stance.

[26] Horace Porter Abbott, The Cambridge Introduction to Narrative (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002); David Herman, James Phelan,
Peter J. Rabinowitz, Brian Richardson, and Robyn Warhol, Narrative Theory: Core Concepts and Critical Debates (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 2012). In the second part of this article, we will explore the consequences of our findings on different learning theories. Narratives have a special effect on human beings. But storytelling through art is nothing new.

Immersive exhibitions are constructed on “an approach based on emotion as the trigger to the desire to know and on sensations.”[48] But, as Florence Belaën also highlights, immersive models only work if the visitor knows (consciously or unconsciously) the codes that are being used, that is, if the narrative remains undisclosed. [50] Richard Lazarus, “A Cognitivist’s Reply to Zajonc on Emotion and Cognition,” American Psychologist 36 (1981): 222–223; Lazarus, “Thoughts on the Relations Between Emotion and Cognition,” American Psychologist 37 (1982): 1019–1024; Lazarus, “On the Primacy of Cognition,” American Psychologist 39 (1984): 124–129. To Wenger, “learning happens in the relationship between the social and the individual.”[59]. For the first 4 issues of Stedelijk Studies students of the Rietveld Academy in Amsterdam produced new photographs. [36] According to Oliver Sacks and other neurologists, narratives define human identities. [53] While Mezirow’s theories have evolved, we chose to use for this article the initial ten phases theory. Without the visitor, the interaction is incomplete.

( Log Out /  It is suggested that information not structured narratively is more likely to be forgotten[3]. [19] Romeo, F. 2013. There is a current aim towards visitor-driven experience, allowing for their involvement as co-producers of the narrative to add a final layer of meaning. For example, according to Aristotle, a narrative is expected to have a beginning, a middle, and an end. Wenger-Trayner draws an interesting distinction between information and meaning that could be most useful in a museum context.

[39] Young and Saver, “The Neurology of Narrative,” 74.

What kind of learning takes place, then? 2 (2008): 104–123. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your account.

For Peter Jarvis, “all human learning begins with disjuncture—with either an overt question or with a sense of unknowing.”[56] For him, the social and the interaction are key to learning, as learning is both existential and experiential. While transformative learning was devised in the 1970s to help the reintegration of adult women, this theory is gaining new interest from the museum field, as social integration is becoming a more prominent mission of cultural institutions. We will first explore how narrative theory can help us better understand the museum public and its relationship to immersive and discursive environments. [32] Abbott, The Cambridge Introduction to Narrative, 2–3. ... A unique communication project for your museum. [11] Jean Davallon, L’exposition à l’œuvre: strategies de communication et médiation symbolique (Paris: L’Harmattan, 1999). This uncertainty of visitor interaction within the narrative is what Fiona Romeo in ‘Can an exhibition be a story’[19] discusses as ‘the problem of storytelling in museums’[20]. In “Act 4: a participatory repertoire,” Roppola describes the development of hands-on, participatory, and visitor-centered museums. While more suited to the discursive model with basic components such as meaning, identity, community, and practice, the kind of learning covered—learning as doing, learning as belonging, learning as becoming, learning as experience[58]—can be implemented (at least to some measure) in an immersive exhibition design as well.