Biotechnological production of propionic acid mainly uses Propionibacterium strains. , A study in mice suggests that propionate is produced by the bacteria of the genus Bacteroides in the gut, and that it offers some protection against Salmonella there. .
InChI=1S/C3H6O2/c1-2-3(4)5/h2H2,1H3,(H,4,5), Acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase, cytoplasmic, Acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase 2-like, mitochondrial, Acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 3, mitochondrial, The Metabolomics Innovation Centre (TMIC), Propionic acid (PA) is widely used as an antifungal agent in food. Exp Ther Med. [, Dionisi-Vici C, Deodato F, Roschinger W, Rhead W, Wilcken B: 'Classical' organic acidurias, propionic aciduria, methylmalonic aciduria and isovaleric aciduria: long-term outcome and effects of expanded newborn screening using tandem mass spectrometry.
It is present naturally at low levels in dairy products and occurs ubiquitously, together with other short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), in the gastro-intestinal tract of humans and other mammals as an end-product of the microbial digestion of carbohydrates. Somerma S, Lassus A, Salde L: Assessment of atrophy of human skin caused by corticosteroids using chamber occlusion and suction blister techniques. Propionic acid (PA) is widely used as an antifungal agent in food. [, de Baulny HO, Benoist JF, Rigal O, Touati G, Rabier D, Saudubray JM: Methylmalonic and propionic acidaemias: management and outcome.
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Propionic acid displays the general properties of carboxylic acids: it can form amide, ester, anhydride, and chloride derivatives. This class of bacteria is commonly found in the stomachs of ruminants and the sweat glands of humans, and their activity is partially responsible for the odor of Emmental cheese, American "Swiss cheese" and sweat. All rights reserved. J Inherit Metab Dis.
[, Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? 1992 Apr;30(4):333-40.  In 2018, 3D printing technology was used for the first time to create a matrix for cell immobilization in fermentation. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab.  Another study finds that fatty acid propionate can calm the immune cells that drive up blood pressure, thereby protecting the body from damaging effects of high blood pressure. [, Chandler RJ, Aswani V, Tsai MS, Falk M, Wehrli N, Stabler S, Allen R, Sedensky M, Kazazian HH, Venditti CP: Propionyl-CoA and adenosylcobalamin metabolism in Caenorhabditis elegans: evidence for a role of methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase in intermediary metabolism. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. Shihua Jishu Yu Yingyong (2005), 23(6), 421-423. 1998 Jan;61(1):19-31. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. It undergoes the Hell–Volhard–Zelinsky reaction that involves α-halogenation of a carboxylic acid with bromine, catalysed by phosphorus tribromide, in this case to form 2-bromopropanoic acid, CH3CHBrCOOH. Eur J Pediatr. Print 2013. PA is irritant but produces no acute systemic effects and has no demonstrable genotoxic potential. In 1847, French chemist Jean-Baptiste Dumas established all the acids to be the same compound, which he called propionic acid, from the Greek words πρῶτος (prōtos), meaning first, and πίων (piōn), meaning fat, because it is the smallest H(CH2)nCOOH acid that exhibits the properties of the other fatty acids, such as producing an oily layer when salted out of water and having a soapy potassium salt.. Glia.
One of the major limitations of the existing models lies in their low productivity yield. Cellulose-acetate-propionate is a useful thermoplastic. [, De Kanter R, De Jager MH, Draaisma AL, Jurva JU, Olinga P, Meijer DK, Groothuis GM: Drug-metabolizing activity of human and rat liver, lung, kidney and intestine slices. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Quantitative metabolomics services for biomarker discovery and validation. [, Christensen JK, Varming T, Ahring PK, Jorgensen TD, Nielsen EO: In vitro characterization of 5-carboxyl-2,4-di-benzamidobenzoic acid (NS3763), a noncompetitive antagonist of GLUK5 receptors. [, Weir TL, Manter DK, Sheflin AM, Barnett BA, Heuberger AL, Ryan EP: Stool microbiome and metabolome differences between colorectal cancer patients and healthy adults. 2002 May;32(5):349-62. At the current time, the world's largest producer of propionic acid is BASF, with approximately 150 kt/a production capacity.