Лекомцев, Ю. K. (1968). For instance, in the Santali-language drama posters in figure 1, or in Santali-language, Eastern Brahmi–script periodicals, Romanization did not appear. In the book, he explained how the Ol-Chiki script was better suited for the unique sounds of Santali than either Roman or the Indic scripts, and paid particular attention to the taput’ aŗang ‘checked consonants’. The numerals are used with numeral classifiers. Like in Roman, the bilabial and palatals were represented by their equivalents in Bengali, although an Indic diacritic called a virama, which is used (in Indo-European languages) to mute the inherent vowel, was used to check the consonant (Table 3, rows 2 and 4).

At the time I collected the data in 2015, most of the Santali tokens were in Roman, followed by Eastern Brahmi.

According to our list just in Bangladesh more than twenty Santali Social Organizations are using our resources/tools. Santali language components in language resource database will be much helpful to researchers, writers, software programmers, translators and lexicographers along with Santali Speakers. This is accomplished through a deglottalization diacritic known as an ohot (ᱽ), which renders the word-final glottalized consonant as a voiced consonant, such as in the sentence dag-ay ᱫ+ᱟ+ᱜ+ᱽ+ᱟ+ᱭ ‘it is raining’, where /daʔ/ followed by a verbal indicative marker /a/ becomes pronounced as /dag/.

The following are a few examples of posts taken in 2015 from the Sarjom Umul group on Facebook. This Romanized transcription was not the Roman devised by missionaries, which required a specialized knowledge of diacritics, but a new form of Romanization meant to accompany Ol-Chiki characters for audiences still not proficient in the script.

It is alphabetic, unlike Indic abugidas such as Eastern Brahmi.

Bengali and the Roman scripts were first used to write Santali before 1860s by European anthropologists, folklorists and missionaries like Campbell, Skrefsrud and Bodding. Even then, however, the introduction of these fonts led to a substantial increase in the number of published material in Ol-Chiki, since it obviated the need to use printing presses. Example 1 is presented with an analysis of how the word-final glottal stops are represented: While it was common to see “h” used for the word-final glottal, one could also see the influence of the missionary-derived Roman. Santal Resource Database runs by the Language Resource Hub. In this article, I trace the emergence and development of the Roman script among Santali speakers located in a highly diverse graphic milieu, in which several different scripts are simultaneously used to write the Santali language. This contrasts with a word like /miʔḍm/ ‘one’, (ᱢ+ᱤ+ᱫ) where the /uʔḍm/ (ᱫ) is glottalized.

This does not correspond to the linguistic use of the term semiconsonant, which is typically applied to sounds like glides, which could be considered either vowels or consonants.

vs. non-referential. In the last decade, smart mobile phone technology has rapidly spread through India’s countryside, including in the Santali-speaking areas, and with it, access to social media platforms such as Facebook and WhatsApp have become widely available.

Now you don't need to learn oÌ l chiki to understand Santali literature.


The process from “transcript” to “trans-script” discussed in this article mirrors a wider theoretical move in linguistic anthropology away from the study of script as a bounded entity or literacy as a specific, or specialized text-based practice to the study of what Debenport and Webster (2019) have recently called “graphic pluralism.” Unlike theories of script in which “certain sign-type relationships have been naturalized” (391), the Romanized trans-script does not serve to either hegemonize indigenous language scripts or disrupt stable monolingual or monographic ideologies.

By the time of my fieldwork in 2011 it was already therefore apparent that the proper pronunciation of checked consonants was subject to ideological evaluation and served as a frame through which insider/outsider distinctions were negotiated.Figure 1.

Our works are ongoing with the aim to create total 20 components/resources for Santali language. Instead, Romanized repertoire indexically points to the continued presence of multiple scripts within the landscape, while also supporting the spread and legitimation of the newly created Ol-Chiki script.

Ol-Chiki, which had not been included as an input font on Android-based mobile phones at the time, was restricted to GIFs uploaded to the site. Fast and instant typing features and no roundtrip delay for processing. For instance, during my fieldwork, most of the Ol-Chiki signs present in the marketplaces of the village where I worked also had Roman transliterations.

Phonemic and Phonetic Rendering of Checked Consonant Features. IPA(International Phonetic Alphabet) converter for the presentation of Santali phonetics, sounds and pronunciation. It includes works such as grammar, novels, drama, poetry, and short stories in Santali using Ol Chiki as part of his extensive programme. Santal Writers, Researchers, Santal Community Organizations of Bangladesh, India and Nepal are doing there publications by using our resources. Verbs in Santali inflect for tense, aspect and mood, voice and the person and number of the subject. 2002. Pandit Raghunath Murmu (1925) ronor : Mayurbhanj, Odisha Publisher ASECA, Mayurbhanj. 2002).6 These consonants, when placed word finally, would be interpreted as “checked,” but when appearing word medially preceding a vowel (represented in Ol-Chiki alphabetically), they would be realized by their voiced equivalent. This complementary use of Roman with indigenous language scripts is prevalent in other indigenous language cases as well, such as in Bender’s study of script use among the Eastern Cherokee in the United States (Bender 2002) or Daveluy and Ferguson’s account (2009) of the graphic landscape in the Canadian Arctic. Convert OÌ l chiki Unicode text to Santali.OÌ l chiki is newly developed Unicode script so it has some limitations to use.

This contrastive pairing, based primarily on the interpretation of written material and the proper pronunciation of certain phonemes, contributes to the larger missionary project of delineating a bounded Santali ethnolinguistic group, distinct from neighboring tribes and caste Hindu communities (Carrin-Bouez 1986).

https://www.ethnologue.com/language/sat/22, https://www.facebook.com/groups/665333906852163/about/, https://blog.google/products/search/gboard-android-gets-new-languages-and-tools/, Semiosis Research Center at Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, ‘On June 30, 1956, by Nathaniel Murmu and Debi Soren’s preparation …’, ‘Not having seen the Rebellion Day as an ordinary fair, it was an inspirational activity as part of the Freedom Struggle’. “Development of Santali Language, Literature and its Recognition (Language/Script Movement).” N.H. Itagi & Shailendra Kumar Singh (eds.

“So far as the consonants are concerned,” Bodding wrote in an early article on the Santali language, “any alphabet derived from the old Sanskrit or Devanagari alphabets is, with the exception of the checked consonants, much superior to our Roman alphabet” (n.d., 3).2 Bodding claimed that the Roman alphabet, in which sounds like the checked consonants can be easily marked, could address the “uncertainty and lack of correct pronunciation, specifically with foreigners, both when reading or speaking the language” (1922, 5). М: Наука, 311—321. For the Ol-Chiki rendering of the Santali word /daʔ/ ‘water/rain’, (ᱫ+ᱟ+ᱜ) is /uʔḍm -a-oʔ/ (ᱫ+ᱟ+ᱜ). Join our language resource develpment community- The Language Resource Hub.Towards the language revitalization... To ascertain a dignified place for Santali language in online and information technology. Despite the contested phonemic status, in linguistic transcriptions of Santali the convention has been to represent these characters as checked voiceless stops, a convention that has been adopted by Ghosh, Neukom, and me.